- World Health Organization (WHO) Evaluation (PDF)
- The Centers for Disease Control [Prevent Mosquito Bites] (article)
- The Centers for Disease Control [Avoid Bug Bites] (article)
- World Health Organization Website
- Environmental Working Group (EWG) [Guide to Bug Repellents] (article)
- NPIC (National Pesticide Information Center)
- Canadian Paediatric Society
- US EPA Fact Sheet
- Government of Canada Personal Insect Repellent (article)
- BC CDC
- CATMAT Tropical Medicine and Travel [Advisory Committee Statement]
- Tick Awareness Canada Association (TACA)
Icaridin is considered to be the repellent of the first choice by the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Advisory Committee on Tropical Medicine & Travellers for 6 months to 12 years of age.
Yes, Icaridin is also know as Picaridin.
According to National Pesticide Information Centre, the US EPA classified picaridin as "not likely to be carcinogenic to humans" based on dermal exposure.
Icaridin is not considered a skin irritant by National Pesticide Information Centre.
Icaridin is safer and more effective than DEET. Icaridin repels and deters insects, so insects move away from the chemical and do not feed if they encounter skin or clothing that has been treated. [source]
The active ingredient in TotalSTOP is Icaridin. Icaridin has been well tested and is recommended by WHO, CDC, and EPA-Registered as a safe, effective, and more pleasant alternative to DEET.
Icaridin application on the skin does not cause any side effects. If accidentally ingested, common symptoms include ocular irritation, pain, vomiting, and oral irritation. Most Icaridin poisoning cases have been managed outside healthcare facilities. However, in case of accidental ingestion, we recommend checking with local Health units.
Yes, there have been several studies conducted on Icaridin.
Icaridin is a synthetic compound derived from the natural compound piperine found in black pepper plant.
Icaridin reliably protects against Malaria Prophylaxis, Dengue Fever, Zika Virus, Chikungunya Virus, West Nile Fever, Meningoen Cephalitis.
Yes, Icaridin is ideal for individuals with sensitive skin or allergies.
Icaridin was first developed in the 1980s by the German company, Bayer AG
Icaridin has been sold in Europe and countries like Australia since 1998. [Source]
It was registered for use by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2001.
The Environmental Working Group recommends Icaridin over Deet because it has shown no neurotoxicity. [Source]
There has been no evidence of any allergic reaction to Icaridin even in people who have shown a previous reaction to Deet. Icaridin has been shown to be an acceptable alternative for people with sensitivity to Deet. [Source]
Icaridin does not kill insects, but it blocks their ability to sense their prey. It also creates a barrier so that if an insect does land on skin, it is unable to bite.
Half-life is how long the amount of a substance can go until it is half of what it was in the beginning. Icaridin was found to have a half-life of 4.1 hours, while Deet had 2.9 hours. [Source]
Yes, Icaridin does have a higher CPT than Deet. The average CPT of 20% Deet is 4 to 4.5 hours against ticks. While the average CPT of 10% Icaridin is 5 to 8 hours. [Source]
Less than 6% of Icaridin is absorbed into the human skin. Because it is easily metabolized, it mostly leaves the body via urine within a day. [Source]
The optimal concentration for Deet is 50%, while 20% of Icaridin gives optimal protection from insect bites. [Source]
Studies have shown that insect repellents with as low as 10% Icaridin content can protect against tick bites for up to 5 hours. [Source]
Lyme disease is caused by tick bites, and since Icaridin protects users from tick bites, it also serves as a preventive measure against Lyme disease.